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        ? 首頁 ? 百科知識 ?和數學測評的發展總結與分析

        和數學測評的發展總結與分析

        時間:2020-03-29 百科知識 聯系我們
        和數學測評的發展總結與分析_國際視野下大規模數學測評研究

        首先,在對TIMSS和PISA數學測評的發展進行總結和分析時,我們要關注當時的歷史背景。

        從以上對TIMSS和PISA數學測評歷史背景的敘述中,我們看到,雖然第一次PISA測評始于2000年,但若從準備時期算起,兩者都發端于20世紀90年代。20世紀后期,隨著知識經濟的到來和科學技術的飛速發展,信息全球化、經濟全球化的特征日益彰顯,不斷引發全世界進行教育思考和變革。世界各國普遍注意到教育對于經濟發展的深刻影響和重要促進作用。如何有效實現對人的教育,促進教育政策和相關實施策略的效率和效能,已成為目前世界各國教育關注的焦點問題。

        無論是TIMSS測評系統,還是PISA測評系統,都力求建立一個學習結果比較平臺。不僅力求真實、有效地反饋學生在各學科(如數學)的學習結果,獲取多元、多層的指標,還希望通過分析各國教育系統中各種因素對于學生學業成就的影響,特別是分析高學業成就的影響因素,幫助各國對相關因素進行調控,促進教育政策的實施。

        其次,這兩個測評所屬的組織值得關注。

        TIMSS數學測評是IEA開發設計的項目。IEA是一個獨立的國際合作研究組織,涵蓋各國的研究機構。通過大規模教育成就比較研究,IEA對各國教育系統(無論是系統內部還是系統間)的教育政策及其對實踐的影響,有了更深層次的理解。它從設立之初,就力求從實證的角度對教育系統的優劣進行比較,并力求識別對教育結果有意義和持續影響的因素。詳細地說,IEA的主要目的是達到以下五點。[64]

        1.為政策制定者提供國際基準,以便于明確該國(或地區)教育體系的長處或不足。

        2.為政策制定者進一步理解影響教學和學習的學校因素或非學校因素,提供高質量的數據信息。

        3.有助于準備或評估教育改革,提供所關心領域對應的數據信息。

        4.發展和提高教育體系的能力,有助于在國家戰略層面對教育進行管理和改善。

        5.有助于全球范圍內教育評價領域研究團隊的進一步發展。

        這就決定了TIMSS測評項目更關注教育內部,特別是課程,以及課程對學習結果的影響。TIMSS測評以課程為整個分析框架的主線,特別是在測評內容上,注重反映各個國家數學課程的課堂實踐情況,揭示相關影響因素與學習結果之間的關系,為學習結果的解釋提供證據。每一輪的TIMSS數學測評,除注重上述內容以外,還注重參加測試國家的數學課程教學實際,如數學課程內容,即關注學生已經知道了什么和已經做了什么。

        PISA數學測評從屬于PISA測評,是OECD開發設計的項目。OECD是由30個成員國組成的政府間國際經濟組織,主要職能是研究分析和預測世界經濟的發展走向,協調成員國關系,促進相互聯系,為成員國制定相關政策及立場提供幫助。該組織秉持著“好的教育促進發展”的信念。PISA測評產生于OECD發起的INES項目,INES提供了OECD成員國教育系統的國際比較數據,滿足了社會發展對人力資本質量進行監控的要求,有助于國家教育系統效率的提高和變革。為完成INES學習結果指標系統、教育和經濟效果指標系統中的相關指標,PISA測評逐步形成并實施。這決定了PISA數學測評是站在人力資本的角度,注重社會發展的需求,更注重人的發展性和對社會發展需求的滿足度,凸顯數學在社會中的實用性。在測評領域上,PISA更注重體現在認知或過程維度上的問題解決能力,即注重體現學生應該知道什么和應該能做什么。

        TIMSS基于IEA的研究方向,出發點在于研究層面,而PISA測評明顯是由政府政策驅動,這樣的差異影響了兩個測評系統的構建。但無論TIMSS測評還是PISA測評,在受到相關教育政策及實施影響的同時,對于各國教育政策的制定和實施,也起著潛移默化的作用。首先,TIMSS測評雖然將課程作為影響學業成就結果的主要變量,關注學校課程內容,但在預期課程的分析過程中,對于各個國家教育政策及目標的關注是不可否認的。如在數學課程的文本分析中,不僅分析了不同內容的比重,還分析了不同內容及課程目標在年級縱向上的發展。2003年的TIMSS數學測評,針對近十年來各國在數學課程上的變化,重新對其內容領域進行了調整。其次,從結果解釋及呈現上來看,TIMSS和PISA數學測評利用IPO模型(PISA數學測評使用的是CIPO模型,增加了情境維度)分別構建了學習成就結果的影響因素分析模型,體現出測評的管理取向。TIMSS和PISA數學測評關注學生個體、教師、學校等因素,探討、分析教育系統內部變量之間的關系及其對學習結果的影響。這些不同指標的構建和呈現,幫助各國多層次、多角度地重新認識本國的教育系統。

        從認知、觀察和結果解釋的角度,無論是對1995年至2011年的五輪TIMSS數學測評進行梳理、敘述和分析,還是對2000年、2003年和2012年的三次PISA數學測評進行梳理、敘述和分析,都可以看出兩個測評系統分別經歷了逐步完善的過程。兩個測評系統針對各自的目的,建立了內容和認知(或表現期望和過程)的分析框架,并以先內容、后認知的順序對相關方面進行了逐步調整和補充完善,如表4-25所示(TIMSS數學測評選取了發生主要變化的三年:1999年、2003年和2007年)。[65]

        表4-25 TIMSS和PISA數學測評在不同輪次上的表現

        (續表)

        TIMSS數學測評的發展和PISA數學測評的發展,可形象地表示為圖4-11。

        圖4-11 TIMSs和PISA數學測評發展示意圖

        時間上看,PISA數學測評雖然起始于TIMSS數學測評之后,但兩個測評都有著類似的逐步完善、發展的過程。沿圖4-12的軸向看,從目標分析框架的制定,到內容維度量尺的構建,一直到過程或表現期望維度的構建,其中還涉及對相關量尺分層級進行描述(TIMSS數學測評為整體數學結果量尺建立基準并進行描述,PISA數學測評為所有維度建立精熟度層次并進行描述)。兩者完善的過程順序類同,在時間進展上呈現出設計和開發內容交替進行的特點。

        從目標分析框架看,TIMSS數學測評從最初的內容—表現期望—觀點三方面的組織結構,逐步走向內容—認知兩方面的組織結構,在最后的結果呈現上,除了對整體數學結果建立量尺外,還分別對內容的不同維度和認知過程的不同維度建立量尺。PISA數學測評則始終將內容和認知過程作為最主要的兩個方面,并結合情境形成組織結構,在結果呈現上,為整體數學素養建立量尺,也分別為內容和過程的不同維度建立量尺。TIMSS數學測評框架中的認知反映的是問題結果過程對不同試題的認知、技能要求,這與PISA數學測評中的過程方面所要體現的總體目標是一致的。雖然兩個數學測評在目標出發點上不一樣,但從目標分析框架及結果呈現上,整體發展呈現出平行、一致的特點,可以看出兩者逐步向趨近、類似甚至相同的方面發展。

        【注釋】

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        Wu, M..Comparing the Similarities and Differences of PISA 2003 and TIMSS[M].OECD Publishing, 2010:30—32.(www.toyotajt.cn)

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        Ina V.S.Mullis, Michael O.Martin, & Eugenio J.Gonzalez.TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report[M].Boston College: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, 2004:55—101.

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        OECD( 2003 ). The PISA 2003 Assessment Framework—Mathematics, Reading, Science and Problem Solving Knowlege and Skills. OECD Publications Servise.54.
        Turner, R., J. Dossey, W. Blum and M. Niss. Using mathematical competencies to predict item difficulty in PISA. in M.Prenzel, M. Kobarg, K. Schops and S.Ronnebeck (eds). Research on PISA: Research Outcomes of the PISA Research Conference 2009[C]. New York: Springer, 2010:23—27.

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        [64]http://www.iea.nl/

        [65]上述兩個測評,在統計模型上都使用IRT模型整合學生的表現,形成相關維度量尺。

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